Of the five states matter can be in, the Bose-Einstein condensate is perhaps the most mysterious. Gases, liquids, solids and plasmas were all well studied for decades, if not centuries; Bose-Einstein condensates weren't created in the laboratory until the 1990s.
A Bose-Einstein condensate is a group of atoms cooled to within a hair of absolute zero. When they reach that temperature the atoms are hardly moving relative to each other; they have almost no free energy to do so. At that point, the atoms begin to clump together, and enter the same energy states. They become identical, from a physical point of view, and the whole group starts behaving as though it were a single atom.
To make a Bose-Einstein condensate, you start with a cloud of diffuse gas. Many experiments start with atoms of rubidium. Then you cool it with lasers, using the beams to take energy away from the atoms. After that, to cool them further, scientists use evaporative cooling. "With a [Bose-Einstein condensate], you start from a disordered state, where kinetic energy is greater than potential energy," said Xuedong Hu, a professor of physics at the University at Buffalo. "You cool it down, but it doesn't form a lattice like a solid." Theory & discoveryBose-Einstein condensates were first predicted theoretically by Satyendra Nath Bose (1894-1974), an Indian physicist who also discovered the subatomic particle named for him, the boson. Bose was working on statistical problems in quantum mechanics, and sent his ideas to Albert Einstein. Einstein thought them important enough to get them published. As importantly, Einstein saw that Bose's mathematics — later known as Bose-Einstein statistics — could be applied to atoms as well as light.
What the two found was that ordinarily, atoms have to have certain energies — in fact one of the fundamentals of quantum mechanics is that the energy of an atom or other subatomic particle can't be arbitrary. This is why electrons, for example, have discrete "orbitals" that they have to occupy, and why they give off photons of specific wavelengths when they drop from one orbital, or energy level, to another. But cool the atoms to within billionths of a degree of absolute zero and some atoms begin to fall into the same energy level, becoming indistinguishable. These forms could potentially be manipulated in the future. In the Netflix original movie Spectral the condensate has been manipulated to make it weaponized. It gives us a look into the future about how condensate could be altered in the future.
An Octopus has 3 Hearts, 9 Brains & Blue Blood
This is 10 really cool facts about Octopuses.
Learn more about the Pacific Giant Octopus here.1. A 50-pound octopus can squeeze through a hole only 2 inches in diameter. If their beak fits, they can get through.
2. They are about 90 percent muscle.
3. You can tell a male octopus from a female by looking at the tip of its third arm on the right (starting between the eyes and going clockwise). Males have a special tip on this arm that has no suckers on the last few inches. This specialized tip is visible even in immature octopus. To mate, the male inserts this special arm into the female’s body cavity. A captured male will try to protect this arm.
4. Female octopus can wait until months after mating to fertilize the eggs.
5. An average female Giant Pacific Octopus in Alaska can lay 90,000 eggs.
6. Fishermen like to cut off the tip of an octopus’ arm and use it for halibut bait because it continues to wiggle even after being cut off.
7. Octopus frequently lose an arm to predators, but they grow back.
8. Giant Pacific Octopus are cannibals. They will happily kill and eat smaller octopus.
9. All species of octopus have venom. The venom of the Giant Pacific Octopus is not dangerous to humans, but Australia’s blue-ringed octopus is known as one of the most poisonous marine animals—its venom is deadly to humans.
10. Octopus actually have shells similar to clams and snails. There is a pair of small, spike-shaped structures called stylets inside the octopus’ body that are a vestigial shell—meaning it really has no function.
Among the gases found in a fart are a composition of about 59 percent nitrogen, 21 percent hydrogen, 9 percent carbon dioxide, 7 percent methane and 4 percent oxygen. Only about one percent of a fart contains hydrogen sulfide gas and mercaptans, which contain sulfur, and the sulfur is what makes farts stink.
An explosion occurs when a large amount of energy is released into a small volume of area in a very short time. The energy released comes in many forms, including chemical (artificial explosives), nuclear and hydrothermal (volcano eruptions).
Burning very rapidly, explosive material releases concentrated gas that expands quickly to fill the surrounding air space and apply pressure to everything in it. That is, it explodes in a blast powerful enough to blow away nearby trees, cars, buildings and anything else in its path.
Top 10 Movie Explosions
An action movie just isn’t the same without some pyromaniac-induced scenes. Months of planning and hundreds of explosives later, these movies’ explosions have made a name for themselves. Here are the Top 10 Movie Explosions that will have you feeling the heat from your couch seat:
10. Fight Club Ending
Project Mayhem comes to a wrap and the city that lead Tyler Durden’s journey of self-discovery crumbles from a series of explosions.
9. V for Vendetta
The final hurrah for the masked freedom fighter V is blowing up London’s Parliament building in a two-minute ensemble of fiery hell.
If you find yourself in a killer shark situation, you better have a pretty big weapon. Brody closes out the Jaws terror when he shoots the air tank in the ocean beast’s mouth and creates one of the best explosions in movie history.
There’s nothing like man against machine. Rambo locks and loads his weapon and starts firing off rounds at a chopper. After a series of rounds hit the chopper, the aerial machine explodes into a thousand pieces.
6. Die Hard
John just barely makes it out alive when Hans sets off all the explosives atop the Plaza. The top floors of the Plaza engulfs in flames in this epic burst of hellfire.
5. The Dark Knight
In this phenomenal blowout, the Joker walks away from the hospital as sequence of blasts annihilate the windows and walls of the buildings. The filmmakers wanted this explosion to be as real as possible, so they found an abandoned candy factory and destroyed it in this massive fireball.
4. Tropic Thunder
In this action comedy, an intense detonation occurs on the horizon when Danny’s pyro technician gets the chance to ignite this big boom in the jungle.
3. Independence day
Blocks of New York are wiped out when aliens invade in this action movie classic. An alien spacecraft hovers around the city, using it’s impressive laser to detonate buildings.
This explosion is one of those “bad movie but good explosion” types. This movie may have been painful to watch, but there is one moment of within this film where it may
have redeemed itself with a fiery disaster.
One of the greatest explosions in movie history happens right in Los Angeles. This nuclear holocaust may have just been in Sarah’s dream, but its still a gargantuan explosion heard around theatres.
Farting can be bad for your health if you’re a cow. A barn containing 90 dairy cows in Rasdorf, Germany, exploded due to the build up of methane gas, according to Reuters and local media, quoting police reports.
Can your farts explode?
The truth is it depends.
The gases in a fart are highly flammable so it would take an outside factor to cause this such as a open flame or spark. Have you ever seen a fart explode?
It seems improbable but what if the science behind a zombie or zombie like outbreak ends up being possible? Below are some scenarios that support the possibility that a zombie like outbreak could really be possible one day.
Possible Zombie Outbreak Scenarios:
Perhaps the military dun goofed with a ‘bio weapon gone bad?’ Because let’s be honest, we never know what our governments get up to behind closed doors.
Maybe some nut job with some spare cash finances the release of a deadly virus? Imagine Pinky and the Brain trying to take over the world, but with zombies.
Did you ever consider a fungal infection being the cause of a zombie outbreak? Totally different huh?
Well its plausible, for example some ants in the world when infected with a fungal spore called the ‘Ophiocordyceps fungus’ are prone to feast upon fellow ants in order to feed the parasitic fungal infection that is controlling them. Who knows, maybe a nut-job scientist could engineer this 48 million year old fungus to control humans and hey-presto, we have a zombie apocalypse on our hands!
The good old viral infection!
This is the most common model of a zombie outbreak, where a virus enters your blood stream via a zombie bite or scratch and hops along to the brain where through processes unbeknownst to us, kills us, and then is kind enough to replicate the cells around the frontal lobe in order to turn us into the mindless, shambling zombies we see in the media.
Sticking to the viral infection, transference is 100% commutable and fatal to the recipient, if you are bitten or bled on and a transference of fluids takes place, then you will be infected and begin the long and horrible journey down the rabbit hole.
Therefore being bitten is not the only way to get infected, if you have sexual contact with an infected person, then you could be infected as well. So basically, don’t have sex with zombies.
Sorry to burst your bubble guys and gals, but there is no such thing as a treatment when considering a viral infection. Yup you heard it right. The reason there is no such thing as treatment is because this virus is a VIRUS! Not a bacteria; therefore antibiotics will not do much good. Antivirals are also unlikely to exist.
Also immunization will not work as the virus cannot create dead pathogens; the virus consistently replicates itself through the manipulation of the frontal lobe. Imagine stem cells recreating themselves rather than other cells around the body, that is essentially how this virus operates, and therefore injecting dead pathogens for immunization is futile as they would regenerate and give you the fully fledged ‘fuck you over’ virus.
Severing limbs is an option if the virus has just entered your body through a bite, however, you would be surprised how quickly the blood in your body will circulate, therefore the appendage must be severed immediately, also there is still a chance that the infected blood will mix with the non-infected blood during the operation.
Bloodletting is not an option, as with snake venom, you cannot drain every artery and vein at once, and all arteries and veins link in with each other, so the virus would spread immediately with no chance of being able to expunge every drop of blood from your arm or leg quickly enough.
In the zombie flicks 28 Days Later and I Am Legend, an unstoppable viral plague sweeps across humanity, transforming people into mindless monsters with cannibalistic tendencies.
Though dead humans can’t come back to life, certain viruses can induce such aggressive, zombie-like behavior. For instance, rabies—a viral disease that infects the central nervous system—can drive people to be violently mad, according to Samita Andreansky, a virologist at the University of Miami’s Miller School of Medicine in Florida who also appears in the documentary.
Combine rabies with the ability of a flu virus to spread quickly through the air, and you might have the makings of a zombie apocalypse.
Rabies Virus Mutation Possible?
Unlike movie zombies, which become reanimated almost immediately after infection, the first signs a human has rabies—such as anxiety, confusion, hallucinations, and paralysis—don’t typically appear for ten days to a year, as the virus incubates inside the body.
Once rabies sets in, though, it’s fatal within a week if left untreated.
If the genetic code of the rabies virus experienced enough changes, or mutations, its incubation time could be reduced dramatically, scientists say.
Many viruses have naturally high mutation rates and constantly change as a means of evading or bypassing the defenses of their hosts.
There are various ways viral mutations can occur, for example through copying mistakes during gene replication or damage from ultraviolet light.
“If a rabies virus can mutate fast enough, it could cause infection within an hour or a few hours. That’s entirely plausible,” Andreansky said.
Airborne Rabies Would Create “Rage Virus”
But for the rabies virus to trigger a zombie pandemic like in the movies, it would also have to be much more contagious.
Humans typically catch rabies after being bitten by an infected animal, usually a dog—and the infection usually stops there.
Thanks to pet vaccinations, people rarely contract rabies in the United States today, and even fewer people die from the disease. For example, in 2008 only two cases of human rabies infection were reported to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
(See pictures of infectious animals in National Geographic magazine.)
A faster mode of transmission would be through the air, which is how the influenza virus spreads.
“All rabies has to do is go airborne, and you have the rage virus” like in 28 Days Later, Max Mogk, head of the Zombie Research Society, says in the documentary. The international nonprofit is devoted to “raising the level of zombie scholarship in the Arts and Sciences,” according to their website.
To be transmitted by air, rabies would have to “borrow” traits from another virus, such as influenza.
Different forms, or strains, of the same virus can swap pieces of genetic code through processes called reassortment or recombination, said Elankumaran Subbiah, a virologist at Virginia Tech who was not involved in the documentary.
But unrelated viruses simply do not hybridize in nature, Subbiah told National Geographic News.
Likewise, it’s scientifically unheard of for two radically different viruses such as rabies and influenza to borrow traits, he said.
“They’re too different. They cannot share genetic information. Viruses assemble only parts that belong to them, and they don’t mix and match from different families.”
Engineered Zombie Virus Possible?
It’s theoretically possible—though extremely difficult—to create a hybrid rabies-influenza virus using modern genetic-engineering techniques, the University of Miami’s Andreansky said.
“Sure, I could imagine a scenario where you mix rabies with a flu virus to get airborne transmission, a measles virus to get personality changes, the encephalitis virus to cook your brain with fever”—and thus increase aggression even further—”and throw in the ebola virus to cause you to bleed from your guts. Combine all these things, and you’ll [get] something like a zombie virus,” she said.
“But [nature] doesn’t allow all of these things to happen at the same time. … You’d most likely get a dead virus.”
OKAY! Well that’s an imperial crap ton of information for you to drool over! Please feel free to get involved as well with our stories, give us ideas for future scenarios and areas you would like us to cover.
Science can be quite explosive as we love to say on SIE. Today we will talk about highly explosive chemical reactions. You can find video examples of these on youtube. If you enjoy this please share and spread the word!
Sodium is a highly combustible element and the addition of water can make it explode. When you add a drop of water added to a small piece of sodium in a flask filled with chlorine gas. The distinctive yellow color of the light emitted is due to sodium’s ‘D lines’ – this is often used in street lighting. This experiment produces a great deal of heat. When you combine sodium and chlorine, you get sodium chloride – common salt.
Magnesium and Dry Ice Reaction
Magnesium ignites easily and burns very brightly. In this experiment, magnesium is ignited in a shell of dry ice – frozen carbon dioxide. Magnesium is able to burn in carbon dioxide and nitrogen. Because of its brilliant light, it was used in early photographic flashes, and it is still used in marine flares and fireworks.
Potassium Chlorate and Candy Reaction
Potassium Chlorate is a compound containing potassium, chlorine and oxygen. It is often used as a disinfectant and in fireworks and explosives. When potassium chlorate is heated to melting point, any item added to it will cause a rapid disintegration in the form of an explosion .The gas coming off the potassium chlorate is oxygen. Because of this, it is often used in airplanes, space stations, and submarines as a source for oxygen. A fire on the space station Mir was attributed to this substance.
When a superconductor is cooled to below its transitional temperature, it becomes diamagnetic: this is when something is repulsed from a magnetic field rather than drawn in to it. This discovery by Meissner has lead to the concept of frictionless transportation, as an object could be “floated” along a track rather than “attached” to it by wheels.
Sodium Acetate Super Saturation
Sodium acetate, when heated and cooled, becomes supersaturated in water. When it comes in contact with another object it re-crystalizes. This reaction also causes heat, and so this has a practical use in heat pads. Sodium acetate is also used as a preservative, and also gives salt and vinegar chips their distinctive taste. It is referred to in foods as E262 or sodium diacetate.
Superabsorbent polymers (also known as hydrogels) are able to absorb extremely large amounts of liquid relative to its own mass. For this reason, they are used in the commercial production of diapers, and incontinence garments, and other fields requiring protection from water or liquids such as underground cabling.
Floating on Sulfur Hexafluoride
Sulfur Hexafluoride is a colorless, odorless, non-toxic and non-flammable gas. Because it is over 5 times denser than air, it is able to be poured in to open containers and light weight objects can float on it as if it were water. Another fun use for this harmless gas is through inhalation; when inhaled, it lowers the voice drastically – the exact opposite of helium.
The reason that your voice is lowered when you inhale sulfur hexafluoride is that the weight of the gas slows the sound waves produced in your vocal tract to just under half the speed of the sound. Helium works in the opposite way.
When helium is cooled cooled to -271c, it reaches the lambda point. At this stage (as a liquid) it is known as Helium II. Hellium II is a superfluid. When it flows through even capillaries of 10?7 to 10?8-m widths it has no measurable viscosity. In addition, it will creep up a container (as it seeks out a warmer area) seemingly against the effects of gravity. Just watch the clip above and be amazed!
Thermite and Liquid Nitrogen
Thermite is aluminum powder and a metal oxide which produces an aluminothermic reaction known as a thermite reaction. It is not explosive, but it can create short bursts of extremely high temperature. A thermite reaction is initiated with some type of detonator and it can burn at temperatures of thousands of degrees.
The Briggs-Rauscher reaction is known as an oscillating chemical reaction. This slowly fades to colorless and the process repeats, about ten times in the most popular formulation, before ending as a dark blue liquid smelling strongly of iodine.” The reason this occurs is that the first reaction causes certain chemicals to be released in to the liquid, which then, in turn, spark a second reaction, and the process repeats itself until exhausted.
Mythbusters easily one of the better shows with real science content left on TV has announced it's final season while this saddens me greatly in the spirit of science, innovation and creativity this blog will work on continuing to show how fun and exciting science really can be.